Property relations and healthcare
Every economic object, every resource, every product must have its owner. From the economic point of view, an owner is a person who supports the object, is responsible for it, involves the object in economic processes, strives to use it in a better way, to get more benefit from it.
From the legal point of view – an owner is a person who has the rights to the object, confirming that the object belongs to this owner. Such person is called the owner, and objects, resources, products – property belonging to him. Relationships related to the ownership of goods, resources, objects to certain persons are property relations.
Medicine in this sense is not an exception, property relations are manifested in healthcare, as in any other branch of economy. The efficiency of functioning of medical institutions depends on who owns health care facilities, how they are managed by their owners, and how relations between different owners of facilities develop.
In today’s world there is a kind of competition between public and private forms of ownership. Although in the countries with market economy the private form of ownership of means of production has become predominant, in relation to such objects of ownership as natural monopolies, armaments, especially important social objects, the state as an owner holds leading positions, retaining at least control functions.
In today’s Russia, the property used in healthcare, according to the principle inherited from the Soviet era, is mainly state and municipal property. In developed market economies, private ownership of healthcare facilities prevails.
Who can and has the right to be the subject of property in relation to the objects used in public health?
A medical object may belong to a person, a family and be used by them both for personal purposes and to serve others. The object may be owned by a group of people united as owners of the object in a partnership, cooperative, partnership, business company, joint stock company, public foundation. The owner of the object is sometimes the collective of a medical institution, forming a collective enterprise, also known as a people’s one.
Management bodies of all levels, from the heads of institutions, state organizations to the top management bodies of health care, perform the functions of owners – managers who have the right and ability to make decisions on the use and application of a number of medical objects of ownership.
If property is administered by state bodies, it is considered that the subject of ownership is the state. In countries with a federative system, the role of property subjects is played by the federation and the role of federal subjects – by large regions. Municipalities should be considered subjects of local property.
It should be noted that the state and municipal administration bodies in charge of health care organisations’ property are not direct owners of this state and municipal property, which is not directly owned by them.
However, they are authorized to dispose of this property on behalf of the state (people) and only in this sense act as owners. Moreover, the powers of property management are usually distributed between different bodies.
Heads of state medical institutions have the right to dispose of the property of the institution only within the limits of the powers granted to them by the state administration bodies, and therefore, strictly speaking, they are not owners, but perform the will of the owners.
The large number and diversity of property subjects is one of the reasons for complications and sometimes conflicts in property relations arising between them, since the same property may become the property of several subjects.
Further, it is necessary to answer the question of what may be the object of property in medicine.
In order to better understand the composition and content of numerous types of property objects, let us single out the most important of these objects:
Land, land plots, areas, lands are one of the most common property objects used by various subjects, including the health care industry.
Natural resources form an even more diverse property, covering flora and fauna, water wealth in the form of water itself and the substances it contains, the air environment. These properties are involved in medicine as a source of medicines, recreational facilities, recreational environment.
Buildings and structures are the largest real estate objects in the wealth created by people. Such objects are part of hospital hospitals, polyclinics, research organizations, health restoration institutions and administrative bodies of health care management.
Fixed assets in the form of equipment, instruments and apparatus also constitute a significant part of the property directly used in the treatment process.
Material resources circulating assets in the form of materials, energy, medicines form various property objects used in medicine.